WESTERN EUROPEAN CITIES TOP QUALITY OF LIVING RANKING ‒ MERCER

February 23, 2016

United States, New York


  • Vienna takes the top spot globally, Baghdad ranks lowest
  • San Francisco is the top-ranked city in the United States, Detroit ranks lowest
  • Personal safety key factor in determining expat quality of living
  • Luxembourg ranks highest for personal safety; Baghdad lowest

Despite recent security issues, social unrest, and concern about the region’s economic outlook, European cities continue to offer some of the world’s highest quality of living, according to Mercer’s 18th annual Quality of Living Survey. Safety, in particular, is a key factor for multinationals to consider when sending expatriate workers abroad, both because it raises concerns about the expat’s personal safety and because it has a significant impact on the cost of global compensation programs.


“Heightened domestic and global security threats, population displacement resulting from violence, and social unrest in key business centers around the world are all elements adding to the complex challenge facing multinational companies when analyzing the safety and health of their expatriate workforces,” said Ilya Bonic, Senior Partner and President of Mercer’s Talent business. “Multinational companies need accurate data and objective methods to determine the cost implications of deteriorating living standards and personal safety issues when compensating expatriates.”


Vienna continues its reign in the top spot for overall quality of living, followed by Zurich (2), Auckland (3), and Munich (4). Vancouver (5) is North America’s highest ranking city, and Singapore is the highest ranking Asian city, holding 26th place. Mercer’s survey also identifies the personal safety ranking for the full list of cities; it is based on internal stability, crime levels, performance of local law enforcement, and the home country’s relationship with other countries. Luxembourg tops the personal safety list and is followed by Bern, Helsinki, and Zurich – all tied in 2nd place. Baghdad (230) and Damascus (229) are the world’s least safe cities, according to the ranking.


Mercer’s authoritative survey is one of the world’s most comprehensive, and is conducted annually to enable multinational companies and other employers to compensate employees fairly when placing them on international assignments. Employee incentives include a quality-of-living allowance and a mobility premium.* Mercer’s Quality of Living Survey provides valuable data as well as hardship premium recommendations for over 450 cities throughout the world; this year’s ranking includes 230 of these cities.


“Ensuring that the needs of expatriates and their families are met wherever work takes them is an essential part of talent retention and recruitment strategies for most multinationals,” said Slagin Parakatil, Principal at Mercer responsible for the quality of living research. “Managing safety and health issues is of utmost importance, especially for employees who relocate with a family. Our surveys enable companies to take adequate precautions for them.


Mr. Parakatil added, “Other elements that add to safety costs in the host location are obtaining suitable and well secured accommodation; having an in-house comprehensive expatriate security program and providing access to reputable professional evacuation services and medical support firms, and finally, providing security training and guarded office premises.”


Americas


Quality of living remains high in North America, where Canadian cities dominate the top of the list. Vancouver (5) is the highest ranking city, followed by Toronto (15) and Ottawa (17). In the United States, San Francisco (28) ranks highest for quality of living, followed by Boston (34), Honolulu (35), Chicago (43), and New York City (44). In Mexico, Monterrey (108) is the highest ranking city. The lowest ranking cities in North America are Monterrey (108) and Mexico City (127) and for the Caribbean, Havana (191) and Port-au-Prince (227). In South America, Montevideo (78), Buenos Aires (93), and Santiago (94) remain the highest ranking cities for quality of living, whereas Bogota (130), La Paz (156), and Caracas (185) rank lowest.


Canadian cities all rank high for personal safety, with Calgary, Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto, and Vancouver sharing 16th place. Kingston (199), Tegucigalpa (201), and Port-au-Prince (211) have the lowest levels of personal safety in the region. In 96th place, Montevideo is South America’s highest ranking city for personal safety; Caracas (214) is the lowest.


Steve Nurney, Leader of Mercer’s Global Mobility Practice for North America, explained, “Most North American cities remain fairly safe for expatriates. But Mexican cities are ranked relatively low, mainly because of drug-related violence. The recent increase of unemployment in Latin America and Caribbean countries, along with the economic downturn and political instability in some of these countries, explains relatively low rankings in personal safety across the region.”


Europe


Despite economic uncertainties, Western European cities continue to enjoy some of the highest quality of living worldwide; they fill seven places in the top 10 list. Vienna continues to lead the ranking and has done so in the last seven published rankings. It is followed by Zurich (2), Munich (4), Dusseldorf (6), Frankfurt (7), Geneva (8), and Copenhagen (9). In 69th place, Prague is the highest ranking city in Central and Eastern Europe, followed by Ljubljana (76) and Budapest (77). The lowest ranking cities in Europe are Kiev (176), Tirana (179), and Minsk (190).


European cities also dominate the top of the personal safety ranking with Luxembourg in the lead, followed by Bern, Helsinki, and Zurich, which are tied for the number two spot. Vienna ranks 5th Geneva and Stockholm are placed jointly in 6th and Copenhagen, Dusseldorf, Frankfurt, Munich, and Nurnberg all share 11th place. A number of key or capital cities rank considerably lower as many suffered either terrorist attacks or social unrest in the last few years; examples include Paris (71), London (72), Madrid (84), and Athens (124).The recent political and economic turmoil in Greece, which resulted in violent demonstrations in Athens and other cities in the country, has undermined its safety ranking. Kiev (189), St. Petersburg (197), and Moscow (206) rank lowest for personal safety in the region.


Asia-Pacific


The vast region of Asia has considerable variation in quality of living. In 26th place, Singapore remains its highest ranking city, whereas Dhaka (214) is the lowest. Following Singapore in Southeastern Asia is Kuala Lumpur (86). Other key cities include Bangkok (129), Manila (136), and Jakarta (142). Japanese cities rank highest in Eastern Asia, with Tokyo in 44th place. Other notable cities are Hong Kong (70), Taipei (84), Shanghai (101), and Beijing (118).


For personal safety, the rankings for Asian cities again vary greatly. Singapore (8) ranks highest overall and is followed by five Japanese cities—Kobe, Nagoya, Osaka, Tokyo, and Yokohama—that are tied for 32nd place. Other key cities include Hong Kong (37), Taipei (78), Beijing (97), Seoul (115), New Delhi (142), and Jakarta (172). Following considerable political unrest and terrorist attacks in several tourist areas over the last few years, Bangkok ranked 173rd for personal safety.


New Zealand and Australia have some of the highest quality of living worldwide. Auckland ranks 3rd globally, Sydney 10th, Wellington 12th, and Melbourne 15th. For personal safety, Pacific cities also rank high, with Auckland and Wellington sharing 9th place. Canberra, Melbourne, Perth, and Sydney share 25th place.


Middle East and Africa


Dubai (75) continues to rank highest for quality of living across Africa and the Middle East, followed by Abu Dhabi (81) and Port Louis (83) in Mauritius. The South African cities of Durban, Cape Town, and Johannesburg rank 85th, 92nd, and 95th, respectively. Baghdad (230) ranks lowest regionally and worldwide.


Only a handful of cities in this region place in the top 100 for personal safety with Abu Dhabi ranking highest in 23rd place, followed by Muscat (29), Dubai (40), and Port Louis (59). The upcoming host of the 2022 FIFA World Cup, Doha, ranks 70th for personal safety. Regional geopolitics is highly volatile and characterised by safety concerns, political turmoil, and an elevated risk of terrorism. The lowest ranking cities in the region are Damascus (229) and Baghdad (230), both of which have witnessed continual violence and terrorist attacks that weigh upon the daily life of locals and expatriates.


-Ends-



Notes to Editors


Mercer produces worldwide quality-of-living rankings annually from its Worldwide Quality of Living Surveys. Individual reports are produced for each city surveyed. Moreover, comparative quality-of-living indexes between a base city and host city are available, as are multiple-city comparisons. Details are available from Mercer Client Services in Warsaw, at +48 22 434 5383 or at www.mercer.com/qualityofliving.


The data was largely analyzed between September and November 2015, and it will be updated regularly to account for changing circumstances. In particular, the assessments will be revised to reflect significant political, economic, and environmental developments.


The information and data obtained through the Quality of Living reports are for information purposes only and are intended for use by multinational organizations, government agencies, and municipalities. They are not designed or intended for use as the basis for foreign investment or tourism. In no event will Mercer be liable for any decision made or action taken in reliance of the results obtained through the use of, or the information or data contained in, the reports. While the reports have been prepared based upon sources, information, and systems believed to be reliable and accurate, they are provided on an “as-is” basis, and Mercer accepts no responsibility/liability for the validity/accuracy (or otherwise) of the resources/data used to compile the reports. Mercer and its affiliates make no representations or warranties with respect to the reports, and disclaim all express, implied and statutory warranties of any kind, including, representations and implied warranties of quality, accuracy, timeliness, completeness, merchantability, and fitness for a particular purpose.


Expatriates in Difficult Locations: Determining Appropriate Allowances and Incentives


Companies need to determine expatriate compensation packages rationally, consistently, and systematically using reliable data. Providing incentives to reward and recognize the effort that employees and their families make when taking on international assignments remains a typical practice, particularly for difficult locations.


Two common incentives include a quality-of-living allowance and a mobility premium:


§   A quality of living or “hardship” allowance compensates for a decrease in the quality of living between home and host locations.


§   A mobility premium simply compensates for the inconvenience of being uprooted and having to work in another country.


A quality of living allowance is typically location-related, while a mobility premium is usually independent of the host location. Some multinational companies combine these premiums, but the vast majority provides them separately.


Quality of Living: City Benchmarking


Mercer also helps municipalities to assess factors that can improve their quality of living rankings. In a global environment, employers have many choices about where to deploy their mobile employees and set up new business. A city’s quality of living can be an important variable for employers to consider.


Leaders in many cities want to understand the specific factors that affect their residents’ quality of living and address those issues that lower a city’s overall quality-of-living ranking. Mercer advises municipalities by using a holistic approach that addresses the goals of progressing towards excellence and attracting both multinational companies and globally mobile talent by improving the elements that are measured in its Quality of Living survey.


Mercer Hardship Allowance Recommendations


Mercer evaluates local living conditions in more than 450 cities surveyed worldwide. Living conditions are analyzed according to 39 factors, grouped in 10 categories:


1.    Political and social environment (political stability, crime, law enforcement, etc.).


2.    Economic environment (currency exchange regulations, banking services).


3.    Socio-cultural environment (media availability and censorship, limitations on personal freedom).


4.    Medical and health considerations (medical supplies and services, infectious diseases, sewage, waste disposal, air pollution, etc.).


5.    Schools and education (standards and availability of international schools).


6.    Public services and transportation (electricity, water, public transportation, traffic congestion, etc.).


7.    Recreation (restaurants, theatres, cinemas, sports and leisure, etc.).


8.    Consumer goods (availability of food/daily consumption items, cars, etc.).


9.    Housing (rental housing, household appliances, furniture, maintenance services).


10.  Natural environment (climate, record of natural disasters).


 


The scores attributed to each factor, which are weighted to reflect their importance to expatriates, permit objective city-to-city comparisons. The result is a quality of living index that compares relative differences between any two locations evaluated. For the indices to be used effectively, Mercer has created a grid that enables users to link the resulting index to a quality of living allowance amount by recommending a percentage value in relation to the index.


About Mercer


Mercer is a global consulting leader in talent, health, retirement and investments. Mercer helps clients around the world advance the health, wealth and careers of their most vital asset – their people. Mercer’s more than 20,000 employees are based in 43 countries, and the firm operates in over 140 countries.  Mercer is a wholly owned subsidiary of Marsh & McLennan Companies (NYSE: MMC), a global professional services firm offering clients advice and solutions in the areas of risk, strategy, and people. With annual revenue of $13 billion and 57,000 colleagues worldwide, Marsh & McLennan Companies is also the parent company of Marsh, a leader in insurance broking and risk management; Guy Carpenter, a leader in providing risk and reinsurance intermediary services; and Oliver Wyman, a leader in management consulting. For more information, visit www.mercer.com. Follow Mercer on Twitter @Mercer.


Mercer Quality of Living Survey – 2016 Worldwide Ranking
     

 


Rank 2015**


City


Country


 


1


VIENNA


AUSTRIA


 


2


ZURICH


SWITZERLAND


 


3


AUCKLAND


NEW ZEALAND


 


4


MUNICH


GERMANY


 


5


VANCOUVER


CANADA


 


6


DUSSELDORF


GERMANY


 


7


FRANKFURT


GERMANY


 


8


GENEVA


SWITZERLAND


 


9


COPENHAGEN


DENMARK


 


10


SYDNEY


AUSTRALIA


 


11


AMSTERDAM


NETHERLANDS


 


12


WELLINGTON


NEW ZEALAND


 


13


BERLIN


GERMANY


 


14


BERN


SWITZERLAND


 


15


TORONTO


CANADA


 


15


MELBOURNE


AUSTRALIA


 


17


OTTAWA


CANADA


 


18


HAMBURG


GERMANY


 


19


LUXEMBOURG


LUXEMBOURG


 


19


STOCKHOLM


SWEDEN


 


21


BRUSSELS


BELGIUM


 


21


PERTH


AUSTRALIA


 


23


MONTREAL


CANADA


 


24


STUTTGART


GERMANY


 


24


NURNBERG


GERMANY


 


26


SINGAPORE


SINGAPORE


 


27


ADELAIDE


AUSTRALIA


 


28


SAN FRANCISCO, CA


UNITED STATES


 


28


CANBERRA


AUSTRALIA


 


30


HELSINKI


FINLAND


 


30


OSLO


NORWAY


 


32


CALGARY


CANADA


 


33


DUBLIN


IRELAND


 


34


BOSTON, MA


UNITED STATES


 


35


HONOLULU, HI


UNITED STATES


 


36


BRISBANE


AUSTRALIA


 


37


PARIS


FRANCE


 


38


LYON


FRANCE


 


39


BARCELONA


SPAIN


 


39


LONDON


UNITED KINGDOM


 


41


MILAN


ITALY


 


42


LISBON


PORTUGAL


 


43


CHICAGO, IL


UNITED STATES


 


44


NEW YORK CITY, NY


UNITED STATES


 


44


TOKYO


JAPAN


 


46


SEATTLE, WA


UNITED STATES


 


46


KOBE


JAPAN


 


46


EDINBURGH


UNITED KINGDOM


 


49


LOS ANGELES, CA


UNITED STATES


 


49


YOKOHAMA


JAPAN


 


51


WASHINGTON, DC


UNITED STATES


 


52


MADRID


SPAIN


 


53


BIRMINGHAM


UNITED KINGDOM


 


53


ROME


ITALY


 


55


GLASGOW


UNITED KINGDOM


 


56


PITTSBURGH, PA


UNITED STATES


 


57


PHILADELPHIA, PA


UNITED STATES


 


58


OSAKA


JAPAN


 


59


ABERDEEN


UNITED KINGDOM


 


60


LEIPZIG


GERMANY


 


61


MINNEAPOLIS, MN


UNITED STATES


 


62


NAGOYA


JAPAN


 


63


DALLAS, TX


UNITED STATES


 


64


BELFAST


UNITED KINGDOM


 


65


HOUSTON, TX


UNITED STATES


 


66


MIAMI, FL


UNITED STATES


 


67


ATLANTA, GA


UNITED STATES


 


68


ST. LOUIS, MO


UNITED STATES


 


69


PRAGUE


CZECH REPUBLIC


 


70


DETROIT, MI


UNITED STATES


 


70


HONG KONG


HONG KONG


 


72


POINTE-A-PITRE


GUADELOUPE


 


73


SEOUL


SOUTH KOREA


 


74


SAN JUAN


PUERTO RICO


 


75


DUBAI


UNITED ARAB EMIRATES


 


76


LJUBLJANA


SLOVENIA


 


77


BUDAPEST


HUNGARY


 


78


MONTEVIDEO


URUGUAY


 


79


VILNIUS


LITHUANIA


 


79


WARSAW


POLAND


 


81


ABU DHABI


UNITED ARAB EMIRATES


 


82


BRATISLAVA


SLOVAKIA


 


83


PORT LOUIS


MAURITIUS


 


84


TAIPEI


TAIWAN


 


85


DURBAN


SOUTH AFRICA


 


86


KUALA LUMPUR


MALAYSIA


 


87


ATHENS


GREECE


 


88


LIMASSOL


CYPRUS


 


89


TALLINN


ESTONIA


 


90


RIGA


LATVIA


 


91


BUSAN


SOUTH KOREA


 


92


CAPE TOWN


SOUTH AFRICA


 


93


BUENOS AIRES


ARGENTINA


 


94


SANTIAGO


CHILE


 


95


JOHANNESBURG


SOUTH AFRICA


 


96


PANAMA CITY


PANAMA


 


97


VICTORIA


SEYCHELLES


 


98


ZAGREB


CROATIA


 


99


WROCLAW


POLAND


 


100


TAICHUNG


TAIWAN


 


101


SHANGHAI


CHINA


 


102


BANDAR SERI BEGAWAN


BRUNEI


 


103


JOHOR BAHRU


MALAYSIA


 


104


TEL AVIV


ISRAEL


 


105


SAN JOSE


COSTA RICA


 


106


BRASILIA


BRAZIL


 


107


MUSCAT


OMAN


 


108


MONTERREY


MEXICO


 


109


BUCHAREST


ROMANIA


 


110


DOHA


QATAR


 


111


NOUMEA


NEW CALEDONIA


 


112


NASSAU


BAHAMAS


 


113


TUNIS


TUNISIA


 


114


ASUNCION


PARAGUAY


 


115


SOFIA


BULGARIA


 


116


RABAT


MOROCCO


 


117


RIO DE JANEIRO


BRAZIL


 


118


BEIJING


CHINA


 


119


GUANGZHOU


CHINA


 


120


AMMAN


JORDAN


 


121


SAO PAULO


BRAZIL


 


122


ISTANBUL


TURKEY


 


123


LIMA


PERU


 


124


KUWAIT CITY


KUWAIT


 


125


MANAUS


BRAZIL


 


126


CASABLANCA


MOROCCO


 


127


MEXICO CITY


MEXICO


 


128


QUITO


ECUADOR


 


129


BANGKOK


THAILAND


 


130


BOGOTA


COLOMBIA


 


131


WINDHOEK


NAMIBIA


 


132


COLOMBO


SRI LANKA


 


133


MANAMA


BAHRAIN


 


134


CHENGDU


CHINA


 


135


SANTO DOMINGO


DOMINICAN REPUBLIC


 


136


MANILA


PHILIPPINES


 


137


NANJING


CHINA


 


137


SHENZHEN


CHINA


 


139


HYDERABAD


INDIA


 


139


XIAN


CHINA


 


141


BELGRADE


SERBIA


 


142


JAKARTA


INDONESIA


 


142


GABORONE


BOTSWANA


 


144


PUNE


INDIA


 


145


BENGALURU


INDIA


 


146


CHONGQING


CHINA


 


147


PORT OF SPAIN


TRINIDAD & TOBAGO


 


147


QINGDAO


CHINA


 


149


LUSAKA


ZAMBIA


 


150


CHENNAI


INDIA


 


151


KINGSTON


JAMAICA


 


152


GUATEMALA CITY


GUATEMALA


 


152


MUMBAI


INDIA


 


152


HO CHI MINH CITY


VIETNAM


 


155


HANOI


VIETNAM


 


156


LA PAZ


BOLIVIA


 


157


SHENYANG


CHINA


 


158


SARAJEVO


BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA


 


159


SKOPJE


MACEDONIA


 


160


KOLKATA


INDIA


 


161


NEW DELHI


INDIA


 


162


DAKAR


SENEGAL


 


163


LIBREVILLE


GABON


 


164


RIYADH


SAUDI ARABIA


 


165


JEDDAH


SAUDI ARABIA


 


166


ACCRA


GHANA


 


167


MOSCOW


RUSSIA


 


168


JILIN


CHINA


 


169


KAMPALA


UGANDA


 


170


VIENTIANE


LAOS, PEOPLE'S DEM. REPUBLIC OF


 


171


CAIRO


EGYPT


 


172


MANAGUA


NICARAGUA


 


173


SAN SALVADOR


EL SALVADOR


 


174


ST. PETERSBURG


RUSSIA


 


175


BLANTYRE


MALAWI


 


176


ALMATY


KAZAKHSTAN


 


176


KIEV


UKRAINE


 


178


MAPUTO


MOZAMBIQUE


 


179


TIRANA


ALBANIA


 


180


BEIRUT


LEBANON


 


181


COTONOU


BENIN


 


182


YEREVAN


ARMENIA


 


183


BANJUL


GAMBIA


 


184


NAIROBI


KENYA


 


185


CARACAS


VENEZUELA


 


186


TEGUCIGALPA


HONDURAS


 


187


ALGIERS


ALGERIA


 


188


TBILISI


GEORGIA


 


189


DJIBOUTI


DJIBOUTI


 


190


MINSK


BELARUS


 


191


KIGALI


RWANDA


 


191


HAVANA


CUBA


 


193


ISLAMABAD


PAKISTAN


 


194


YAOUNDE


CAMEROON


 


195


PHNOM PENH


CAMBODIA


 


196


DOUALA


CAMEROON


 


197


BAKU


AZERBAIJAN


 


198


DAR ES SALAAM


TANZANIA


 


199


LAHORE


PAKISTAN


 


199


LUANDA


ANGOLA


 


201


YANGON


MYANMAR


 


202


KARACHI


PAKISTAN


 


203


TEHRAN


IRAN


 


204


LOME


TOGO


 


205


TASHKENT


UZBEKISTAN


 


206


ABIDJAN


CÔTE D'IVOIRE


 


207


ADDIS ABABA


ETHIOPIA


 


208


ASHGABAT


TURKMENISTAN


 


209


HARARE


ZIMBABWE


 


210


BISHKEK


KYRGYZSTAN


 


211


LAGOS


NIGERIA


 


212


ABUJA


NIGERIA


 


212


DUSHANBE


TAJIKISTAN


 


214


DHAKA


BANGLADESH


 


215


OUAGADOUGOU


BURKINA FASO


 


216


TRIPOLI


LIBYA


 


217


NIAMEY


NIGER


 


218


ANTANANARIVO


MADAGASCAR


 


219


BAMAKO


MALI


 


220


NOUAKCHOTT


MAURITANIA


 


221


CONAKRY


GUINEA REPUBLIC


 


222


KINSHASA


DEMOCRATIC REP. OF THE CONGO


 


223


BRAZZAVILLE


CONGO


 


224


DAMASCUS


SYRIA


 


225


N'DJAMENA


CHAD


 


226


KHARTOUM


SUDAN


 


227


PORT AU PRINCE


HAITI


 


228


SANA'A


YEMEN ARAB REPUBLIC


 


229


BANGUI


CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC


 


230


BAGHDAD


IRAQ


 


     

 


* Based on November 2015 Survey


 

 


     

 


         
Mercer Quality of Living Survey – 2016 Personal Safety Ranking
 

Rank 2016


City


Country


 


 


1


LUXEMBOURG


LUXEMBOURG


 


 


2


BERN


SWITZERLAND


 


 


2


HELSINKI


FINLAND


 


 


2


ZURICH


SWITZERLAND


 


 


5


VIENNA


AUSTRIA


 


 


6


GENEVA


SWITZERLAND


 


 


6


STOCKHOLM


SWEDEN


 


 


8


SINGAPORE


SINGAPORE


 


 


9


AUCKLAND


NEW ZEALAND


 


 


9


WELLINGTON


NEW ZEALAND


 


 


11


COPENHAGEN


DENMARK


 


 


11


DUSSELDORF


GERMANY


 


 


11


FRANKFURT


GERMANY


 


 


11


MUNICH


GERMANY


 


 


11


NURNBERG


GERMANY


 


 


16


AMSTERDAM


NETHERLANDS


 


 


16


CALGARY


CANADA


 


 


16


MONTREAL


CANADA


 


 


16


OTTAWA


CANADA


 


 


16


STUTTGART


GERMANY


 


 


16


TORONTO


CANADA


 


 


16


VANCOUVER


CANADA


 


 


23


ABU DHABI


UNITED ARAB EMIRATES


 


 


24


OSLO


NORWAY


 


 


25


CANBERRA


AUSTRALIA


 


 


25


MELBOURNE


AUSTRALIA


 


 


25


PERTH


AUSTRALIA


 


 


25


SYDNEY


AUSTRALIA


 


 


29


MUSCAT


OMAN


 


 


30


DUBLIN


IRELAND


 


 


31


LJUBLJANA


SLOVENIA


 


 


32


KOBE


JAPAN


 


 


32


NAGOYA


JAPAN


 


 


32


OSAKA


JAPAN


 


 


32


TOKYO


JAPAN


 


 


32


YOKOHAMA


JAPAN


 


 


37


BERLIN


GERMANY


 


 


37


HAMBURG


GERMANY


 


 


37


HONG KONG


HONG KONG


 


 


40


DUBAI


UNITED ARAB EMIRATES


 


 


41


BRUSSELS


BELGIUM


 


 


41


POINTE-A-PITRE


GUADELOUPE


 


 


43


LEIPZIG


GERMANY


 


 


44


ABERDEEN


UNITED KINGDOM


 


 


44


EDINBURGH


UNITED KINGDOM


 


 


44


GLASGOW


UNITED KINGDOM


 


 


47


BANDAR SERI BEGAWAN


BRUNEI


 


 


47


LIMASSOL


CYPRUS


 


 


49


PRAGUE


CZECH REPUBLIC


 


 


50


BRATISLAVA


SLOVAKIA


 


 


51


ADELAIDE


AUSTRALIA


 


 


51


BRISBANE


AUSTRALIA


 


 


53


VILNIUS


LITHUANIA


 


 


54


BIRMINGHAM


UNITED KINGDOM


 


 


54


CHICAGO, IL


UNITED STATES


 


 


54


HONOLULU, HI


UNITED STATES


 


 


54


HOUSTON, TX


UNITED STATES


 


 


54


SAN FRANCISCO, CA


UNITED STATES


 


 


59


LISBON


PORTUGAL


 


 


59


PORT LOUIS


MAURITIUS


 


 


61


WROCLAW


POLAND


 


 


62


LYON


FRANCE


 


 


63


MILAN


ITALY


 


 


64


BARCELONA


SPAIN


 


 


64


BELFAST


UNITED KINGDOM


 


 


66


TALLINN


ESTONIA


 


 


66


WARSAW


POLAND


 


 


68


NASSAU


BAHAMAS


 


 


68


VICTORIA


SEYCHELLES


 


 


70


DOHA


QATAR


 


 


71


PARIS


FRANCE


 


 


72


BOSTON, MA


UNITED STATES


 


 


72


LONDON


UNITED KINGDOM


 


 


72


LOS ANGELES, CA


UNITED STATES


 


 


72


MINNEAPOLIS, MN


UNITED STATES


 


 


72


NEW YORK CITY, NY


UNITED STATES


 


 


72


PITTSBURGH, PA


UNITED STATES


 


 


78


TAIPEI


TAIWAN


 


 


79


BUCHAREST


ROMANIA


 


 


79


JOHOR BAHRU


MALAYSIA


 


 


79


ZAGREB


CROATIA


 


 


82


RIGA


LATVIA


 


 


82


ROME


ITALY


 


 


84


MADRID


SPAIN


 


 


85


DALLAS, TX


UNITED STATES


 


 


85


MIAMI, FL


UNITED STATES


 


 


85


PHILADELPHIA, PA


UNITED STATES


 


 


85


SEATTLE, WA


UNITED STATES


 


 


85


WASHINGTON, DC


UNITED STATES


 


 


90


NOUMEA


NEW CALEDONIA


 


 


91


KUALA LUMPUR


MALAYSIA


 


 


92


TAICHUNG


TAIWAN


 


 


93


BUDAPEST


HUNGARY


 


 


94


SAN JUAN


PUERTO RICO


 


 


95


BUSAN


SOUTH KOREA


 


 


96


MONTEVIDEO


URUGUAY


 


 


97


BEIJING


CHINA


 


 


97


CHENGDU


CHINA


 


 


97


CHONGQING


CHINA


 


 


97


GUANGZHOU


CHINA


 


 


97


JILIN


CHINA


 


 


97


NANJING


CHINA


 


 


97


QINGDAO


CHINA


 


 


97


SHANGHAI


CHINA


 


 


97


SHENYANG


CHINA


 


 


97


XIAN


CHINA


 


 


107


ATLANTA, GA


UNITED STATES


 


 


107


DETROIT, MI


UNITED STATES


 


 


107


ST. LOUIS, MO


UNITED STATES


 


 


110


KUWAIT CITY


KUWAIT


 


 


111


MANAUS


BRAZIL


 


 


112


SANTIAGO


CHILE


 


 


113


CHENNAI


INDIA


 


 


114


SANTO DOMINGO


DOMINICAN REPUBLIC


 


 


115


HANOI


VIETNAM


 


 


115


SEOUL


SOUTH KOREA


 


 


117


PANAMA CITY


PANAMA


 


 


118


GABORONE


BOTSWANA


 


 


118


SOFIA


BULGARIA


 


 


120


SHENZHEN


CHINA


 


 


121


HYDERABAD


INDIA


 


 


122


ASUNCION


PARAGUAY


 


 


123


BENGALURU


INDIA


 


 


124


ATHENS


GREECE


 


 


125


HO CHI MINH CITY


VIETNAM


 


 


125


LUSAKA


ZAMBIA


 


 


127


RABAT


MOROCCO


 


 


128


SAN JOSE


COSTA RICA


 


 


129


AMMAN


JORDAN


 


 


129


PUNE


INDIA


 


 


131


BELGRADE


SERBIA


 


 


131


KOLKATA


INDIA


 


 


131


SARAJEVO


BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA


 


 


134


BRASILIA


BRAZIL


 


 


135


DJIBOUTI


DJIBOUTI


 


 


136


HAVANA


CUBA


 


 


137


DURBAN


SOUTH AFRICA


 


 


138


ACCRA


GHANA


 


 


139


MONTERREY


MEXICO


 


 


140


BLANTYRE


MALAWI


 


 


141


PORT OF SPAIN


TRINIDAD & TOBAGO


 


 


142


NEW DELHI


INDIA


 


 


143


LIBREVILLE


GABON


 


 


144


TUNIS


TUNISIA


 


 


145


WINDHOEK


NAMIBIA


 


 


146


BUENOS AIRES


ARGENTINA


 


 


146


MANAGUA


NICARAGUA


 


 


146


VIENTIANE


LAOS, PEOPLE'S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF


 


 


149


MUMBAI


INDIA


 


 


150


SKOPJE


MACEDONIA


 


 


151


MAPUTO


MOZAMBIQUE


 


 


152


MANAMA


BAHRAIN


 


 


153


COLOMBO


SRI LANKA


 


 


153


LIMA


PERU


 


 


155


JEDDAH


SAUDI ARABIA


 


 


155


RIYADH


SAUDI ARABIA


 


 


157


CASABLANCA


MOROCCO


 


 


158


DAKAR


SENEGAL


 


 


159


LA PAZ


BOLIVIA


 


 


160


KIGALI


RWANDA


 


 


161


QUITO


ECUADOR


 


 


162


BAKU


AZERBAIJAN


 


 


163


BANJUL


GAMBIA


 


 


163


TIRANA


ALBANIA


 


 


165


MEXICO CITY


MEXICO


 


 


166


KAMPALA


UGANDA


 


 


166


YEREVAN


ARMENIA


 


 


168


DOUALA


CAMEROON


 


 


168


YAOUNDE


CAMEROON


 


 


170


CAPE TOWN


SOUTH AFRICA


 


 


171


MINSK


BELARUS


 


 


172


JAKARTA


INDONESIA


 


 


173


BANGKOK


THAILAND


 


 


174


COTONOU


BENIN


 


 


175


ALMATY


KAZAKHSTAN


 


 


175


LUANDA


ANGOLA


 


 


177


DAR ES SALAAM


TANZANIA


 


 


178


JOHANNESBURG


SOUTH AFRICA


 


 


179


TBILISI


GEORGIA


 


 


180


NIAMEY


NIGER


 


 


181


SAN SALVADOR


EL SALVADOR


 


 


182


ASHGABAT


TURKMENISTAN


 


 


182


MANILA


PHILIPPINES


 


 


184


TEL AVIV


ISRAEL


 


 


185


RIO DE JANEIRO


BRAZIL


 


 


186


GUATEMALA CITY


GUATEMALA


 


 


187


ANTANANARIVO


MADAGASCAR


 


 


187


LOME


TOGO


 


 


189


KIEV


UKRAINE


 


 


189


YANGON


MYANMAR


 


 


191


BOGOTA


COLOMBIA


 


 


192


SAO PAULO


BRAZIL


 


 


193


OUAGADOUGOU


BURKINA FASO


 


 


194


ALGIERS


ALGIERIA


 


 


194


DUSHANBE


TAJIKISTAN


 


 


194


TASHKENT


UZBEKISTAN


 


 


197


ADDIS ABABA


ETHIOPIA


 


 


197


ST. PETERSBURG


RUSSIA


 


 


199


KINGSTON


JAMAICA


 


 


200


TEHRAN


IRAN


 


 


201


TEGUCIGALPA


HONDURAS


 


 


202


ISTANBUL


TURKEY


 


 


203


NOUAKCHOTT


MAURITANIA


 


 


204


PHNOM PENH


CAMBODIA


 


 


205


HARARE


ZIMBABWE


 


 


206


MOSCOW


RUSSIA


 


 


207


BRAZZAVILLE


CONGO


 


 


208


ABIDJAN


COTE D'IVOIRE


 


 


209


DHAKA


BANGLADESH


 


 


210


BISHKEK


KYRGYZSTAN


 


 


211


PORT AU PRINCE


HAITI


 


 


212


BAMAKO


MALI


 


 


213


BEIRUT


LEBANON


 


 


 


214


CARACAS


VENEZUELA


 


 


215


N'DJAMENA


CHAD


 


 


216


ABUJA


NIGERIA


 


 


216


CAIRO


EGYPT


 


 


218


ISLAMABAD


PAKISTAN


 


 


218


LAGOS


NIGERIA


 


 


218


LAHORE


PAKISTAN


 


 


218


TRIPOLI


LIBYA


 


 


222


KHARTOUM


SUDAN


 


 


223


CONAKRY


GUINEA REPUBLIC


 


 


224


NAIROBI


KENYA


 


 


225


KARACHI


PAKISTAN


 


 


226


KINSHASA


DEM. REP. OF THE CONGO


 


 


227


BANGUI


CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC


 


 


228


SANA'A


YEMEN ARAB REPUBLIC


 


 


229


DAMASCUS


SYRIA


 


 


230


BAGHDAD


IRAQ


 


 


     

 


 


* Based on November 2015 Survey


 

 


 


     

 


 


           

The personal Safety Ranking is based on the following criteria: Relationship with other countries, Internal Stability, Crime and Law Enforcement


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